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“If we and the rest of the back-boned animals were to disappear overnight, the rest of the world would get on pretty well. But if the invertebrates were to disappear, the world’s ecosystems would collapse.” - Sir David Attenborough



Why Give Offerings to the Gods?

~ The tradition of giving offerings to the gods dates back to prehistoric times. We can see the reflection of this in the Bible and other ancient holy texts, as well as through archaeology, cave paintings, etc. It was thought by our ancestors that giving offerings to the gods would gain their favour. Today, people give offerings in a variety of places where religious rites are performed.

As a pagan, you might wonder whether you should give offerings to your gods and ancestors. There is nothing wrong with this, and should actually be a part of your tradition on at least a seasonal basis. Though many pagans claim they don't "worship" their gods or ancestors, they tend to use the phrase "work with" or "revere" their gods and ancestors. So we can view it as more of a friendship or working relationship and so to give an offering to a god or ancestor is simply like making an exchange or a deal. "I'm giving you this in exchange for that." 

On the contrast, you can also give an offering if you are simply wanting to thank the god or ancestor for their help / support / love, etc. Offerings are not required by gods or ancestors, but they are helpful and appreciated. Think of it like this, if someone you loved gave you a thoughtful gift just to say thank you or make your day, wouldn't you accept it? Wouldn't you be grateful and more wont to bestow gifts upon that person, too? It's the same thing with deities and ancestors.

Offerings of various fruits and vegetables left on a pagan altar. 

▪What Do I Offer My God or Goddess?

Many people get confused on what type of offerings to give to their gods, goddesses, and ancestors. This is not a difficult task and should be a fun part of your practice as a pagan. The key to giving good offerings is to simply be mindful of what you are offering.

▪Here are some things that can be offered to the gods and goddesses:

Incense - research what type of incense your god or goddess would like the most.

Bowl of herbs or flower petals - research what type of herb/flowers your god or goddess might like then leave it on your altar.

Foods - certain types of foods can be used as offerings to your gods. These can be left on your altar or set aside on your dinner table. 

Drink - a bowl of water or some other form of beverage associated with your god can be left on your altar.

Candles - you can dedicate a certain candle's flame to the energy of your god or goddess.

Song - sing a special song or play a special song dedicated in your god/goddess name.

As you can see, there is no major limit as to what you can offer up to your gods. With any of your offerings, you should research what kind your god or goddess would prefer before giving the offering. But, if you don't have a special kind of incense or you can't afford that particular offering, give what you can give. The gods aren't jerks and will understand if you give an offering with pure heart and good intention.

▪How Do I Dispose of the Offerings?

Many people want to know what they're supposed to do with the offerings once a sufficient time has passed. This is an easy enough question to answer. Do what you feel is best. However, it seems somewhat disrespectful to throw away certain things.

Here's some tips on how to dispose of offerings in appropriate ways:

Food - if it was vegetable or fruit matter, throw it in the compost or throw it outside for the birds and wild animals to eat. I believe the gods and ancestors would be appreciative of such a gesture.

Water/Wine/Liquid - can be poured as a libation outside on the ground. Don't drink it after you've offered it.

Dried herbs and plant material - again, can be given back to nature or used in the compost.

Trinkets, jewellery, knick-knacks - you can keep these on your ancestors' or gods' altars and switch them out with the seasons (see section below on seasonal offerings).

▪Seasonal Offerings and Conclusion

You might find that as the seasons pass you will get the urge to change your altar decorations. This can also include seasonal offerings to the gods and ancestors. For instance, if the summer solstice is on its way, you might want to take down your Spring décor (eggs, rabbits, etc) to make room for summer décor. This can include switching out plants, flowers, bowls of dried herbs and stones all dedicated to the gods and ancestors.

Often when I clean and reorganise my altar, I am thinking of what the gods associated with the coming season would enjoy. This typically includes different stones, dried flower petals and herbs, and even boughs or branches of evergreen trees. Depending on what gods you work with or what branch of paganism you follow, this will influence how you set up your altar and whether or not you change your offerings and altar décor with the seasons.

The choice is ultimately up to you what you want to offer to your gods and ancestors. The key to giving the best offerings is to simply be mindful and intentional of what you are giving. You wouldn't invite an honored guest over for dinner and throw out a bowl of two-day-old leftovers, would you? So treat your gods and ancestors with just as much respect, if not more. Think about what you are giving them and whether or not they would really enjoy it if they were sitting across from you at your dinner table. While I'm sure most of the gods and ancestors are just happy to be recognised after years of being ignored, we still want to be respectful, polite, and thoughtful.



Climate science has a communication problem. Abstract data, figures, and projections into the distant future can be tough to comprehend. Without effective storytelling tools to convey the severity of the crisis and what’s at stake if we don’t act, it can be difficult to motivate the broader public to advocate for change.

“As filmmakers, we know stories can be powerful agents of change, and with the window for action rapidly closing to address the planetary emergency, there’s never been a greater need for compelling, authentic storytelling. Open Planet will not only present the causes and impacts of climate change and nature loss but also the incredible ingenuity of those driving innovation to keep crucial sustainability targets within reach.”

While some videos were created specifically for the platform, others are submitted by filmmakers, broadcasters, and production companies, and new footage is added daily. “Our immediate focus is to significantly grow the Open Planet footage library to cover a wider range of issues and regions globally so that more stories can be told to more audiences,” says Bethany Hutchings, who leads communications and content. “Crucially, our content needs to then reach changemakers around the world to deliver impact on a greater scale.”



The Earth’s soils, rocks, air, water, plants and animals are all valuable resources that provide a wide range of services and benefits. These resources need to be carefully managed and maintained to support a healthy functioning environment. In this Natural Capital podcast series, hosted by Rachel Smillie we will explore different natural capital assets and their value to Scottish agriculture and the rural economy, including the opportunities and risks for the future.



"Claire Mitchell QC and Zoe Venditozzi, Author co-host the Witches of Scotland podcast. Over the forthcoming weeks we hope to bring you interviews from those who know about the history, law and stories of those accused of witchcraft.“



“In January 2016 the Commission concluded that the Witchcraft Suppression Act’s prohibition against identifying as a Witch and professing knowledge of Witchcraft was inconsistent with section 15 and therefore unconstitutional...”



“The founder of Patagonia, Yvon Chouinard, and his family, have given away the company to an environmental trust and non-profit.

The company will still be an active producer of apparel, camping supplies and other goods — but all profits will go to the organizations to fight the climate crisis and pursue other environmental goals.“



‘The Atlantic Religion’ is a blog dealing with the history, culture and philosophies of indigenous paganism in Europe’s Atlantic, Mediterranean and Eurasian provinces. The cultural identifier of ‘Celtic’ has modern as well as ancient ethno-linguistic connotations which place unnecessary limitations upon the history and geographic extent of a philosophical/belief-system which once was once common across the entirety of historic and pre-historic northern Europe.



"The Archaeology News Network (TANN) is a non-profit, online open access, pro-community news website bringing together people in related fields with active interests intersecting archaeology. As such we publish all the latest press-releases and news articles relating to the fields of Archaeology, Anthropology and Palaeontology, as well as from other scientific disciplines, including Earth Science, Evolution, Astronomy, Ecology and Natural Heritage."

M-zine: News
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